- Written By Anu_V
- Last Modified 22-06-2023
Plants form a basic essential elements of nature. They provide us with oxygen. Along with that, they provide food and shelter to animals and human beings. Plants also have medicinal values and are used to cure several ailments and diseases. Along with that, they maintain the ecological balance of the earth and its atmosphere. They are the primary source of nutrition for all the living being. A plant is made of different parts such as the root, the stem, the leaf, the fruit and the flower. Each part of the plant performs different functions.
There is a lot of diversity in the plant kingdom. It is important that we understand the importance of plants and their parts. You can study CBSE Class 6 Science Chapter 7 and go through the NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 7 to know the structure of plants and their functions. We will provide detailed information about the Parts of Plant Diagram in this article. Read on to find out.
Parts of Plants: Description
Plants are classified based on morphology and other characteristics. Plants are categorized based on root, stem, leaves, fruit and flowers. Therefore, it is important to understand the structure and functionalities of all the parts in detail. Each part of the plant performs different functions that are beneficial for the growth of the plant. Like, roots absorb water and minerals from the soil, stem holds the plant upright in the ground, leaves prepare food for the plant using sunlight and the fruit and flowers help in reproduction, seed dispersal, protection, etc.
Parts of Plant: Root
The root is the most important part of a plant that grows underground. The roots absorb water and minerals from the soil, regulate the growth of the plant and store food materials. The elongation of radicle forms primary roots that grow inside the soil whereas, its lateral roots are termed as secondary and tertiary roots.
The primary root and its branches are known as the taproot system. In monocot plants, the primary root is short-lived and is replaced by a large number of roots. The roots originating from the base of the plants are known as the fibrous root system. Roots originating from parts of the plants other than the radicle are termed as adventitious roots. There are different parts of roots as mentioned below:
- Root Cap: The root is covered at the apex of the root system by the root cap.
- Region of Meristematic Activity: Above the rootcap is the region of meristematic activity which possess cells that are small in size and have dense protoplasm.
- Region of Elongation: This region undergoes rapid elongation and is responsible for the growth of the root.
- Region of Maturation: The cells of elongation gradually differentiate and mature.
- Root Hairs: The mature cells will form very delicate and thread-like structures called root hair. They absorb water and minerals from the soil.
Plant Part: Stem
The stem is considered to be the ascending part of the axis that bears branches, leaves, flowers and fruits. It is the part of plants that bears nodes and internodes. Leaves are born at the region called nodes and internodes are the portions between two nodes. Initially, the stems are green in colour when young and turn woody or brown in colour after a period of time. It transports water and minerals, stores food, and provides protection and helps in vegetative propagation. Let us now check out a few of the functions of the stem:
- Support: The stem holds and supports the entire plant by helping it stand upright to the ground.
- Transport: The stem helps in the transport of water and minerals from the root to the other parts of the plants.
- Store: The stem acts as storage as it stores the food in the form of starch.
- Guard: The stem protects the xylem and phloem and allows them to perform their functions.
Part of Plant: Leaf
The leaf is a lateral structure found on the stem. They develop at the nodes of the stem bearing axil. These axillary buds form branches. The leaf is considered to be the most important part of photosynthesis. There are two types of leaves i.e., simple and compound. A leaf consists of three main parts namely; leaf base, petiole and lamina.
Let us check the functions of leaves as mentioned below:
- Photosynthesis: Leaves prepare food for the plants with the help of sunlight.
- Transpiration: Leaves remove excess water from the plants through the tiny pores called stomata.
- Transportation: Leaves transport water, minerals and food materials.
Parts of Plant: Flower
Flowers are the reproductive units of the plant. The flower consists of four different kinds of whorls on the thalamus – calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium. Calyx and corolla are accessory organs whereas, androecium and gynoecium are reproductive organs. Let us know about the parts of the flowers in detail:
- Calyx: The calyx is the outermost part of the whorl called sepals. The sepals protect the flower from damage.
- Corolla: It is composed of petals. They are colored and attracts insects for pollination.
- Androecium: It is composed of stamens. The male reproductive part consists of a stalk or a filament and anther.
- Gynoecium: It is composed of stigma, style and ovary. This is the female reproductive part of the flower.
The primary function of flowers is reproduction. Flowers provide nectar for insects which in turn help in pollination.
Parts of Plant: Fruit
Fruits are the most important feature of flowering plants. It is a mature ovary developed after fertilization. The parts of the fruits are as follows:
Epicarp: The outer layer of the fruit which is dry or fleshy is called the epicarp.
Mesocarp: The middle layer of the fruit is called the mesocarp.
Endocarp: The inner layer of the fruit is called the endocarp.
The seed is developed after fertilization. It is made of a seed coat and embryo. The primary function of fruit is to protect the seed and aid the dispersal of mature seeds.
FAQs on Parts of a Plant
The frequently asked questions on parts of plants are given below:
Q. What is the function of stem?
Ans: The stem holds the plant upright from the ground. A stem provides structure to the plant. It transports food from the roots to all the parts of the plants and stores the food made by the leaves. This is the part of the plant that bears leaves, flowers, fruits, thus helping in their vegetative reproduction. The thorns that grow in a plant are also in this structure of the plant. Thorns keep animals away from grazing. Thus the stem of a plant plays an important role in protecting the plants.
Q. Name the parts of a plant.
Ans: The different parts of plants include root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit.
Q. What is the function of root?
Ans. The root transports water, mineral and food from the soil. It stores food and helps the plant to stand upright and grow.
Q. What are the 4 main parts of a plant?
Ans. The main parts of a plant areroots, stem, leaves, flowers and fruit.
Q. What is the function of flower?
Ans. The primary function of flower is reproduction. It also provides nectar to the insects that help in pollination.
Q. What is the function of leaves?
Ans: Leaves prepare food for the plants using air, water and sunlight by the process of photosynthesis. They take part in the process of transpiration and also participate in reproduction.
Q. What is the function of fruits?
Ans: Fruits protect the seeds during their growth phase. They play an important role in the reproduction of plants.
Q. Name the parts of plants that creates food for the plant by the Photosynthesis process.
Ans: Leaves create food for the plants by the mechanism of Photosynthesis.
We have now provided you witha detailed article on parts of plants in this article. Make sure that you utilize this information and solutions providedhere in the best possible way. Have a clear understanding of the concepts and then try to answer the questions from your textbook.
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